Tuition For Dyslexic Students Singapore

Tuition For Dyslexic Students Singapore

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What is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia; also (incorrectly) referred to as word blindness is a term used in science for serious problems with can read words.

There is still much debate about the origin, but it is generally assumed that the cause of the reading problem lies in the malfunctioning of phonological language processing. Someone with dyslexia is called dyslexia or dyslexics, plural or dyslexics, and dyslexics, but is sexually neutral usually called ‘dyslect’ (plural ‘dyslexes’).

Research
Oswald Berkhan described the condition as early as 1881, but it was Rudolf Berlin who coined the term ‘dyslexia’ in 1887 for this. The term was used to describe the case of a boy who had serious difficulty learning to read and write, while he seemed to have normal intelligence outside these areas.

Studies have revealed that dyslexia comes with a neurological cause. Despite the fact that there are many variants and causes for dyslexia, in many cases, the brain is unable to interpret visual or auditory information. The brain can partially compensate for this in various ways, or in the case of a mild form, by using other brain functions. This depends on the extent of the disorder. Stimulation and training of the brain can lead to better compensation at a young age. Dyslexia mainly affects reading, spelling, and vocabulary.

Forms of dyslexia
Research from neuropsychology has shown that there are various forms of dyslexia. These are related to specific problems that people may encounter when reading words. [1] Dyslexia can occur in children as a developmental disorder, or as a result of brain damage. Children who receive the designation ‘dyslexia’ appear to form a heterogeneous group. There may be problems in recognizing the visual word image, or problems in the sphere of understanding language and sounds. Most dyslexic children (85%) appear to have difficulty so much with recognizing the visual word image, but with connecting a letter with a sound.

Two forms that can occur in patients with brain damage are described below. Surface dyslexia means that people have problems recognizing the word image. With phonological dyslexia it is the other way around: people have no trouble with the word image but with pronouncing words. People mainly experience problems when reading unknown or nonsense words. These disorders may be associated with damage to specific areas of the brain. With phonological dyslexia, this is the center of Broca [3] and with surface dyslexia the left temporal lobe.

Heredity
Dyslexia tends to run in families too, and relatives of dyslexics often have other language problems. Dyslexia is more common in boys than in girls and there are strong indications that it is hereditary. Children with dyslexia in the family have a ten times greater chance of being dyslexic than children without dyslexia in the family. The probability that a boy is dyslexic if his father is, is perhaps 50%. This is slightly lower for girls. Gene markers on chromosomes 1 and 15 have been identified in dyslexic families.

Diagnosis
The diagnosis of dyslexia can only be made by a doctor, healthcare psychologist or an orthopedagogue. Masters and Bachelors in speech therapy have also been trained for this in some countries.

To determine the diagnosis, it must be ruled out that reading and spelling problems have a different cause, such as another disorder or poor reading and spelling education at primary school. In addition, it must be demonstrated that the backlog is not made up of good-quality extra lessons.

Features
Early childhood
Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects people of all ages, but the symptoms vary by age. In studies in children with a hereditary risk of dyslexia, difficulties with speech production and grammatical development are reported at the age of 30 months, followed by a slower acquisition of vocabulary during the years before going to school, resulting in delays in phonological development and knowledge of the alphabet among young school children. Reports of parents of speech and language deprivation among children with reading difficulties are common in epidemiological studies.

Later youth
Dyslexia shows itself to the fullest in children of school-age. Although in most cases speech perception is intact, dyslexic children have difficulty thinking about the sound structure of spoken words. Such phonological problems make it difficult for them to learn to make the connection between sounds and printed word letters. The majority of dyslexic kids have a problem with a phonetic approach when reading and they’re incapable of reproducing the sound structure of words when spelling.

Although dyslexic children overcome many of their problems, they later have subtle problems with listening and reading and writing skills as adults. Through functional brain research, we begin to understand why this is the case. It has been found that when dyslexic adults have to say words or rhymes and thus perform short-term verbal memory tasks, they only use part of the brain areas that are normally involved. Their phonological difficulties are probably due to a weak connection between the language areas at the front and back of the left hemisphere.

Research results
Knowledge of the indicators for reading skills and dyslexia has led to innovations in treatment. A groundbreaking study showed that children who performed poorly in a phonological processing task before going to school clearly benefited from training in sound categorization through rhyme and alliteration, especially when combined with learning letter sounds. As a result, it has been proven that phonological awareness training combined with structured reading exercises is an effective treatment for poor readers. It gives better progress than training in reading or phonological awareness alone.

Doubts
Even though the phrase dyslexia is the topic of debate, you will find quite strong pieces of evidence that unexpected reading problems in kids are due to language disorders in the phonological area. Recent research shows that dyslexic children not only have difficulty reading but also understanding spoken language. The latter could possibly have to do with disorders in the verbal working memory. Children with reading difficulties often have many psychosomatic problems: complaints about headaches and difficulty seeing are common. With a detailed description of the case and the family history, dyslexic problems can be discovered. With standard tests on children before school age, knowledge of children’s rhymes and letters can easily be examined.

Clinical (treatment) experiences show that with regard to dyslexia it is wrong to wait and see how the child develops. A delay in learning to read can quickly turn into a significant reading disorder if nothing is done about it.

Didactic neglect
Dyslexia can only be diagnosed if it can be excluded that the child has had poor education. Yet almost all children can learn to read. This means that a large proportion of children learn to read insufficiently due to factors other than dyslexia. There should then not be the talk of dyslexia, but of a quality problem. The quality of the instruction is crucial for learning to read well. The diagnosis of dyslexia is sometimes wrongly made and is actually a matter of didactic neglect. The reason for this is that schools, teachers, and parents often look for the problems in the child and do not pay sufficient attention to their own role.


Home Tuition For Dyslexic Students Singapore

Rates

For all Home Visit: 1.5hr per lesson – minimum.
Level of Student
Part-time Educational Therapist (Diploma)
Full-time Educational Therapist (Degree)
Therapist visits your Home
Pre-School
$65 – 75/hr
$65 – 75/hr
1.5hr per lesson
Pri 1~2
$65 – 75/hr
$65 – 75/hr
1.5hr per lesson
Pri 3~4
$65 – 75/hr
$65 – 75/hr
1.5hr per lesson
Pri 5~6
$65 – 85/hr
$70 – 85/hr
1.5hr per lesson
Sec 1~2
$75 – 85/hr
$75 – 90/hr
1.5hr per lesson
Sec 3~5
$75 – 90/hr
$75 – 90/hr
2 hr per lesson
(For all Home Visit: 1.5hr per lesson – minimum).
Estimated Hourly Rate S$ per Qualification. We reserved the right to change at any time.

 

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Tuition For Dyslexic Students Singapore written by Vincent

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